Cook the pasta according to the package directions; drain, reserving 1½ cups of the pasta water.
Meanwhile, season the chicken all over with ½ teaspoon of the salt and ⅛ teaspoon of the pepper. Set it aside.
Heat the pine nuts in a large, deep sauté pan on medium, shaking the pan often, until lightly browned and fragrant, 5 minutes. Remove them from the pan and set them aside.
Raise the heat to medium-high and add the oil. When it is very hot, add the chicken and cook until browned and no longer pink in the center (165°F internal temperature), 3 to 4 minutes per side. Remove the thighs to a cutting board and let them rest for 10 minutes.
Meanwhile, add the butter and garlic to the pan and cook for 1 minute. Add the artichoke hearts, pepper flakes, olives, and kale, stirring until the greens begin to wilt, 2 to 3 minutes. Add the drained pasta, reserved pasta water, and ½ cup of cheese, stirring vigorously until the liquid in the pan reduces slightly and coats the pasta, 1 to 2 minutes. Stir in the remaining ¼ teaspoon of salt and ⅛ teaspoon of pepper.
Chop the reserved chicken and stir it into the pan. Divide the pasta among plates and garnish with the reserved pine nuts and some grated Parmesan if desired.
Tip: If you don’t have baby kale or arugula, use chopped Swiss chard or spinach.