Season the turkey with the chile powder, cumin, and ¼ teaspoon of the salt.
Warm 1 tablespoon of the oil in a heavy skillet over medium-high heat. Add the turkey and cook until browned, 4 to 5 minutes per side. Reduce the heat to medium-low and cook until no longer pink in the center (160ºF internal temperature), 6 to 8 minutes. Transfer the meat to a cutting board to cool for 10 minutes.
Meanwhile, pour the lime juice into a large bowl. Slowly whisk in the remaining 5 tablespoons of oil until the mixture is blended and thickened. Whisk in the cilantro, garlic, and remaining ¼ teaspoon of salt.
Add the lettuce, tomatoes, onion, chile, and beans to the bowl and toss until coated with the lime dressing. Remove the salad to a platter or plates. Slice the turkey, and arrange the turkey, cheese, and avocado on top of the salad.
Tip: Have extra Thanksgiving turkey? Weigh out 1 pound of white meat, scatter on the spices as directed in the Southwest Turkey Salad recipe, and then sear the meat in a skillet in place of the fresh turkey. Proceed with the rest of the directions.
For a bit more flavor, crumble one slice of crisp bacon over each salad.